This study tests, using a sample of cross-border alliances, how different alliance capability components intersect to develop resource complementarity and trust and how such interpartner attributes themselves intersect to enhance performance. We find that management capability allows firms to build resource complementarity and trust. High formulation capability is required for management capability to positively shape resource complementarity. Search capability is only positively linked to resource complementarity when formulation capability is low. International alliance experience drives resource complementarity. Trust has an inverted U-shaped relationship with performance, and resource complementarity drives trust and performance. Resource complementarity positively moderates the trust–performance link.