This paper addresses the growing but fragmented research area of changes in foreign operation modes. Previous research claims this field to be under-researched and at the same time more complex than hitherto assumed. Moreover, a majority of studies investigating mode change include the topic rather inexplicitly. In consequence, literature on mode change is fragmented across different research streams and is characterized by incoherent nomenclature, a variety of research foci as well as results that are hard to compare. By conducting a structured literature review we consolidate existing findings, provide a deeper understanding of firms’ foreign operation mode change, related theoretical perspectives, and its antecedents and consequences. Based on our findings we discuss relevant areas for future research in this research field.