In this chapter, we will describe how the analysis of eye movements can be used in the study of the cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying economic decision making. We will first introduce the area of neuroeconomics by describing relevant theories and methods. We will then demonstrate how oculographic methods have been used profitably in this field. While initially, considerable effort and energy had to be applied to find a common ground and language for the different disciplines involved in neuroeconomics, in recent years, testable hypotheses and models have developed within a common framework. These models have led to intriguing insights into the cognitive and neural mechanisms leading up to economic decisions. We conclude that the field of neuroeconomics is a flourishing and fruitful endeavour and that especially the application of knowledge about the oculomotor system can make important contributions.