Fare Evasion and Ticket Forgery in Public Transport: Insights from Germany, Austria and Switzerland

Publication: Scientific journalJournal articlepeer-review


Local public transport companies provide important mobility services to the general public. Although these services are usually subsidised, companies rely on revenues generated by ticket sales. Therefore, fare evasion (i.e., people using a transport service without paying for it) and ticket forgery (the production of an illegal ticket facsimile) have considerable influence on the companies’ economic sustainability. As existing research regarding the economic perspective is limited, this paper presents a Delphi study that investigates the phenomena with a survey of experts in public transport companies and transport associations in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. The findings of the survey provide insights into the overall perception and discuss relevant aspects of both fare evasion and ticket forgery, thereby not only highlighting practical implications, but also helping policy makers shape adequate policies for public transport in societies.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)98
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Austrian Classification of Fields of Science and Technology (ÖFOS)

  • 502017 Logistics
  • 502052 Business administration
  • 502019 Marketing
  • 502020 Market research
  • 502032 Quality management
  • 504007 Empirical social research
  • 507025 Transport planning
  • 506004 European integration

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