Hierarchical modelling in international business research: Patterns, problems, and practical guidelines

Thomas Lindner, Jonas Puck, Jonathan Doh

Publication: Scientific journalJournal articlepeer-review


International Business (IB) phenomena often encompass activities at the nation, industry, firm, and individual levels. Consequently, empirical analyses in IB often consider at least two levels of analysis; failing to do so represents omitted variable bias. In this Perspectives paper, we review and evaluate the use and misuse of multi-level methods in IB, suggesting that IB scholars often fail to employ explicitly multilevel approaches when confronted with multi-level phenomena. We also assess different multi-level modeling techniques, noting that despite different nomenclature, many are functionally equivalent, and offer suggestions for best practices in the deployment of multi-level methods in IB.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of World Business
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Austrian Classification of Fields of Science and Technology (ÖFOS)

  • 502052 Business administration
  • 502003 Foreign trade
  • 502

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