Regulatory impact of environmental standards on the eco-efficiency of firms

Christoph Bremberger, Francisca Bremberger, Mikulas Luptacik, Stephan Schmitt

Publication: Scientific journalJournal articlepeer-review


In this paper we propose an approach to implement environmental standards into Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and in this way to measure their regulatory impact on eco-efficiency of firms. As one standard feature of basic DEA models (as e.g. CCR from Charnes et al. (1978)) lies in the exogeneity of inputs, desirable and undesirable outputs, it is not possible to introduce environmental constraints for these parameters directly into basic DEA models. Therefore, we use a bounded-variable way, which allows constraints on the efficiency frontier. The regulatory impact is assessed as difference in eco-efficiency scores before and after fictive introduction of an environmental standard. Furthermore, we distinguish between weak and strong disposability of undesirable outputs and develop corresponding models. Assessing the regulatory impact of environmental standards in advance provides support for environmental policy makers in choosing appropriate instruments and in adjusting the intensity of regulation.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)421 - 433
JournalJORS. Journal of the Operational Research Society (früher: Operational Research Quarterly)
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2015

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