The Circular City and Adaptive Reuse of Cultural Heritage Index: Measuring the investment opportunity in Europe

Gillian Joanne Foster, Ruba Saleh

Publication: Scientific journalJournal articlepeer-review


The long-lived, culturally relevant, and unique buildings of Europe's urban landscapes embody the values of the circular economy (CE) and sustainability. They are central to urban identities, generation after generation. Furthermore, adaptive reuse of cultural heritage buildings (ARCH) contributes to slowing down the extraction of natural resources, reducing energy for new buildings, and reducing construction and demolition waste and greenhouse gas emissions. ARCH's inherent characteristics distinctly express the 2019 European Green Deal's CE objectives and the 2020 building Renovation Wave Strategy. In this context, European city managers, heritage conservationists, and other stakeholders need a systematic method to characterize the investment opportunity for ARCH, considering CE. To fill this methodological gap, this study introduces a new composite indicator called the Circular City Adaptive Reuse of Cultural Heritage Index.
Original languageEnglish
JournalResources, Conservation and Recycling
Issue number10588
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Austrian Classification of Fields of Science and Technology (ÖFOS)

  • 211908 Energy research
  • 201128 Sustainable building
  • 207106 Renewable energy
  • 401905 Renewable resources
  • 405004 Sustainable agriculture
  • 502022 Sustainable economics
  • 509 not use (legacy)
  • 105904 Environmental research


  • Circular City
  • Circular Economy

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