The influence of internal and external pressures on carbon management practices and disclosure strategies

David Martin Herold, Ki-Hoon Lee

Publication: Scientific journalJournal articlepeer-review


As a result of institutional and stakeholder pressures, companies have increasingly implemented various internal and external carbon management practices, reflecting different carbon disclosure strategies. Existing research, however, is limited to distinguish between different types of carbon disclosure strategy and to explain the dynamic interaction between internal and external pressures. In response, drawing from institutional and stakeholder theory, this study (1) proposes a framework that depicts different carbon disclosure strategies based on internal and external pressures, and (2) using a sample of 40 leading global logistics companies, subsequently categorises the companies based on the extent of applied internal and external carbon management practices. Using data from Bloomberg ESG and the Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP) reports, the analysis and the categorisation is based 26 specific carbon management practices during the timeframe from 2012 to 2014. The findings show that the majority of companies align internal and external carbon management practices, reflecting a consistent strategic approach towards carbon disclosure. However, most companies follow either a transparent or a symbolic approach, indicating these companies either are engaged in both internal and external practices or in neither. We found that the key internal drivers are the companies’ policies and procedures, while key external drivers include high engagement with policy makers and NGOs.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1 - 19
JournalAustralasian Journal of Environmental Management
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Cite this